princeton lab for electrochemical engineering systems research


Park, J. H. Schneider, N.M., Steingart, D.A., Deligianni, H. Kodambaka, S. Ross, F.M. (2018) 'Control of Growth Front Evolution by Bi Additives during ZnAu Electrodeposition', Nano Letters. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04640.

Schneider, N. M., Park J.H., Grogan J.M., Steingart D.A., Bau H.H., Ross F.M. Nat (2017) 'Nanoscale evolution of interface morphology during electrodeposition, Nature Communications, 8(1), p. 2174. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02364-9

Steingart, D. A. and Viswanathan, V. (2017) 'Comment on 'Alternative strategy for a safe rechargeable battery'', Energy & Environmental Science doi:10.1039/C7EE01318C

Knehr K.W., Biswas, S.B., Steingart, D.A. (2017) Quantification of the Voltage Losses in the Minimal Architecture Zinc-Bromine Battery using GITT and EIS, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, doi:10.1149/2.0821713jes

Davies G., Knehr K., Van Tassell B., Hodson T., Biswas S., Hsieh A., Steingart D., 'State of Charge and State of Health Estimation Using Electrochemical Acoustic Time of Flight Analysis' (2017) Journal of The Electrochemical Society doi:10.1149/2.1411712jes

Park J.H., Steingart D.A., Kodambaka S., Ross F.M. (2017) Electrochemical electron beam lithography: Write, read, and erase metallic nanocrystals on demand, Science Advances, 3(7), p. e1700234. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700234.

Zamarayeva A.M., Ostfeld A.E., Wang M., Duey J.K., Deckman I., Lechne B.P., Davies G., Steingart D.A., Arias A.C. (2017) Flexible and stretchable power sources for wearable electronics, Science Advances, 3(6), p. e1602051. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1602051.

Biswas, S., Senju, A., Mohr, R. C., Hodson, T., Karthikeyan, N., Knehr, K. W., Hsieh, A., Yang, X., Koel, B. E. and Steingart, D. (2016) Minimal Architecture Zinc-Bromine Battery for Low Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage, Energy & environmental science. The Royal Society of Chemistry. doi:10.1039/C6EE02782B.

Hertzberg, B. J., Huang, A., Hsieh, A., Chamoun, M., Davies, G., Seo, J. K., Zhong, Z., Croft, M., Erdonmez, C., Meng, Y. S. and Steingart, D. (2016) The effect of multiple cation electrolyte mixtures on rechargeable Zn-MnO2 alkaline batteries, Chemistry of Materials doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00232.

Gallaway, J. W., Hertzberg, B. J., Zhong, Z., Croft, M., Turney, D. E., Yadav, G. G., Steingart, D. A., Erdonmez, C. K. and Banerjee, S. (2016) Operando identification of the point of Mn3O4 spinel formation during gamma-MnO2 discharge within batteries, Journal of power sources, 321, pp. 135142. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.002. Davies, G., Hsieh, A. G., Hultmark, M., Mueller, M. E. and Steingart, D. A. (2016) Utilization of Hyper-Dendritic Zinc during High Rate Discharge in Alkaline Electrolytes, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163(7), pp. A1340A1347. doi:10.1149/2.0891607jes.

Bhadra, S., Hsieh, A. G., Wang, M. J., Hertzberg, B. J. and Steingart, D. A. (2016) Anode Characterization in Zinc-Manganese Dioxide AA Alkaline Batteries Using Electrochemical-Acoustic Time-of-Flight Analysis, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163(6), pp. A1050A1056. doi:10.1149/2.1201606jes.

Zamarayeva, A. M., Gaikwad, A. M., Deckman, I., Wang, M., Khau, B., Steingart, D. A. and Arias, A. C. (2016) Fabrication of a High-Performance Flexible SilverZinc Wire Battery, Advanced Electronic Materials. doi:10.1002/aelm.201500296.

Lei, D., Lee, D.-C., Magasinski, A., Zhao, E., Steingart, D. and Yushin, G. (2016) Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes, ACS applied materials & interfaces. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b10547.

Rus, E. D., Moon, G. D., Bai, J., Steingart, D. A. and Erdonmez, C. K. (2016) Electrochemical Behavior of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide in Aqueous KOH and LiOH Solutions: A Comparative Study, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163(3), pp. A356A363. doi:10.1149/2.1011602jes.

Gupta, T., Kim, A., Phadke, S., Biswas, S., Luong, T., Hertzberg, B. J., Chamoun, M., Evans-Lutterodt, K. and Steingart, D. A. (2016) Improving the cycle life of a high-rate, high-potential aqueous dual-ion battery using hyper-dendritic zinc and copper hexacyanoferrate, Journal of power sources, 305, pp. 2229. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.11.065.

Van Tassell, B., Yang, S., Le, C., Huang, L., Liu, S., Chando, P., Byro, A., Liu, X., Gerber, D. L., Leland, E. S., Sanders, S., Kinget, P. R., Kymissis, I., Steingart, D. and OBrien, S. (2015) Metacapacitors: Printed Thin Film, Flexible Capacitors for Power Conversion Applications, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, PP(99), pp. 11. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2015.2448529.

Chamoun, M., Hertzberg, B. J., Gupta, T., Davies, D., Bhadra, S., Van Tassell, B., Erdonmez, C. and Steingart, D. A. (2015) Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes, Nature Asia Materials, 7(4), p. e178. doi:10.1038/am.2015.32.

Hsieh, A. G., Bhadra, S., Hertzberg, B., Gjeltema, P. J., Goy, A., Fleischer, J. W. and Steingart, D. (2015) Electrochemical-Acoustic Time of Flight: In Operando Correlation of Physical Dynamics with Battery Charge and Health, Energy & environmental science. The Royal Society of Chemistry. doi:10.1039/C5EE00111K.

Gaikwad, A. M., Arias, A. C. and Steingart, D. A. (2015) Recent Progress on Printed Flexible Batteries: Mechanical Challenges, Printing Technologies, and Future Prospects, Energy Technology. WILEY-VCH Verlag. doi:10.1002/ente.201402182.

Bhadra, S., Hertzberg, B., Hsieh, A. G., Croft, M., Gallaway, J. W., Van Tassell, B., Chamoun, M., Erdonmez, C., Zhong, Z., Sholklapper, T. and Steingart, D. (2015) 'The Relationship between Coefficient of Restitution and State of Charge of Zinc Alkaline Primary LR6 Batteries', Journal of materials chemistry. A, Materials for energy and sustainability. The Royal Society of Chemistry. doi:10.1039/C5TA01576F.

Gaikwad, A. M., Khau, B. V., Davies, G., Hertzberg, B., Steingart, D. A. and Arias, A. C. (2015) 'A High Areal Capacity Flexible Lithium-Ion Battery with a Strain-Compliant Design', Advanced Energy Materials, 5(3). doi:10.1002/aenm.201401389.

Gupta, T., Hannon, J. B., Tersoff, J., Tromp, R. M., Ott, J. A., Bruley, J. and Steingart, D. A. (2015) 'Strain-driven mound formation of substrate under epitaxial nanoparticles', Nano letters, 15(1), pp. 3438. doi:10.1021/nl502516y.

Gallaway, J. W., Menard, M., Hertzberg, B., Zhong, Z., Croft, M., Sviridov, L. A., Turney, D. E., Banerjee, S., Steingart, D. A. and Erdonmez, C. K. (2015) 'Hetaerolite Profiles in Alkaline Batteries Measured by High Energy EDXRD', Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162(1), pp. A162A168. doi:10.1149/2.0811501jes.

Kong, Y. L., Tamargo, I. A., Kim, H., Johnson, B. N., Gupta, M. K., Koh, T.-W., Chin, H.-A., Steingart, D. A., Rand, B. P. and McAlpine, M. C. (2014) '3D printed quantum dot light-emitting diodes', Nano letters, 14(12), pp. 70177023. doi:10.1021/nl5033292.

Desai, D., Wei, X., Steingart, D. A. and Banerjee, S. (2014) 'Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries', Journal of power sources, 256(0), pp. 145152. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.01.026.

Gallaway, J. W., Erdonmez, C. K., Zhong, Z., Croft, M., Sviridov, L. A., Sholklapper, T. Z., Turney, D. E., Banerjee, S. and Steingart, D. A. (2014) 'Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries', Journal of materials chemistry. A, Materials for energy and sustainability. The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2(8), pp. 27572764. doi:10.1039/C3TA15169G.

Hertzberg, B., Sviridov, L., Stach, E. A., Gupta, T. and Steingart, D. (2014) 'A Manganese-Doped Barium Carbonate Cathode for Alkaline Batteries', Journal of the Electrochemical Society., 161(6), pp. A835A840. doi:10.1149/2.083405jes.

Gallaway, J. W., Gaikwad, A. M., Hertzberg, B., Erdonmez, C. K., Chen-Wiegart, Y.-C. K., Sviridov, L. A., Evans-Lutterodt, K., Wang, J., Banerjee, S. and Steingart, D. A. (2014) 'An In Situ Synchrotron Study of Zinc Anode Planarization by a Bismuth Additive', Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 161(3), pp. A275A284. doi:10.1149/2.037403jes.

Desai, D., Turney, D. E., Anantharaman, B., Steingart, D. A. and Banerjee, S. (2014) 'Morphological Evolution of Nanocluster Aggregates and Single Crystals in Alkaline Zinc Electrodeposition', Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118(16), pp. 86568666. doi:10.1021/jp411104a.

Huang, L., Liu, S., Van Tassell, B. J., Liu, X., Byro, A., Zhang, H., Leland, E. S., Akins, D. L., Steingart, D. A., Li, J. and O'Brien, S. (2013) 'Structure and performance of dielectric films based on self-assembled nanocrystals with a high dielectric constant', Nanotechnology, 24(41), p. 415602. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/24/41/415602.

Gaikwad, A. M., Steingart, D. A., Ng, T. N., Schwartz, D. E. and Whiting, G. L. (2013) 'A flexible high potential printed battery for powering printed electronics', Applied physics letters. AIP Publishing, 102(23), p. 233302. doi:10.1063/1.4810974.

Gaikwad, A. M., Chu, H. N., Qeraj, R., Zamarayeva, A. M. and Steingart, D. A. (2013) 'Reinforced Electrode Architecture for a Flexible Battery with Paperlike Characteristics', Energy Technology. WILEY-VCH Verlag, 1(2-3), pp. 177185. doi:10.1002/ente.201200027.

Gaikwad, A. M., Zamarayeva, A. M., Rousseau, J., Chu, H., Derin, I. and Steingart, D. A. (2012) 'Highly stretchable alkaline batteries based on an embedded conductive fabric', Advanced materials . WILEY-VCH Verlag, 24(37), pp. 50715076. doi:10.1002/adma.201201329.

Ito, Y., Wei, X., Desai, D., Steingart, D. and Banerjee, S. (2012) 'An indicator of zinc morphology transition in flowing alkaline electrolyte', Journal of power sources, 211(0), pp. 119128. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.03.056.

Ito, Y., Nyce, M., Plivelich, R., Klein, M., Steingart, D. and Banerjee, S. (2011) 'Zinc morphology in zincnickel flow assisted batteries and impact on performance', Journal of power sources, 196(4), pp. 23402345. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.09.065.

Gaikwad, A. M., Gallaway, J. W., Desai, D. and Steingart, D. A. (2011) 'Electrochemical-Mechanical Analysis of Printed Silver Electrodes in a Microfluidic Device', Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 158(2), pp. A154A162. doi:10.1149/1.3525274.

Gaikwad, A. M., Whiting, G. L. and Steingart, D. A. (2011) 'Highly Flexible, Printed Alkaline Batteries Based on MeshEmbedded Electrodes', Advanced. Wiley Online Library. Available at:

Gallaway, J. W., Desai, D., Gaikwad, A., Corredor, C., Banerjee, S. and Steingart, D. (2010) 'A Lateral Microfluidic Cell for Imaging Electrodeposited Zinc near the Shorting Condition', Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 157(12), pp. A1279A1286. doi:10.1149/1.3491355.

Ho, C. C., Murata, K., Steingart, D. A., Evans, J. W. and Wright, P. K. (2009) 'A super ink jet printed zincsilver 3D microbattery', Journal of micromechanics and microengineering: structures, devices, and systems, 19(9), p. 094013. Available at:

Ho, C. C., Steingart, D., Evans, J. and Wright, P. (2008) 'Tailoring Electrochemical Capacitor Energy Storage Using Direct Write Dispenser Printing', ECS Transactions, 16(1), pp. 3547. doi:10.1149/1.2985625.

Steingart, D., Roundy, S., Wright, P. K. and Evans, J. W. (2008) 'Micropower Materials Development for Wireless Sensor Networks', MRS bulletin / Materials Research Society. Cambridge University Press, 33(04), pp. 408409. doi:10.1557/mrs2008.81.

Otis, B., Gambini, S., Shah, R., Steingart, D., Quvy, E., Rabaey, J., Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A. and Wright, P. (2007) 'Modelling and simulation techniques for highly integrated, low-power wireless sensor networks', IET computers & digital techniques / IET. IET Digital Library, 1(5), pp. 528536. doi:10.1049/iet-cdt:20050214.

Marcolongo, P., Evans, J. W. and Steingart, D. A. (2007) 'A Novel, Inexpensive, and Rugged Probe for Measuring Gas Bubbles in Liquid Metals: Part I. Mathematical Modeling and Laboratory Experiments', Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers, 38(3), pp. 389399. doi:10.1007/s11663-007-9053-2. Steingart, D. A. and Evans, J. W. (2007) 'Simulation of granular flow in 2-D hoppers using the CaramHong model', Chemical engineering science, 62(4), pp. 11551160. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2005.04.011.

Steingart, D. A., Redfern, A., Ho, C., Wright, P. and Evans, J. (2006) 'Jonny Galvo: A Small, Low Cost Wireless Galvanostat', ECS Transactions, 1(21), pp. 1722. doi:10.1149/1.2218987.

Steingart, D. A. and Evans, J. W. (2005) 'Measurements of granular flows in two-dimensional hoppers by particle image velocimetry. Part I: experimental method and results', Chemical engineering science, 60(4), pp. 10431051. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2004.09.066.

Jian, K., Shim, H.-S., Tuhus-Dubrow, D., Bernstein, S., Woodward, C., Pfeffer, M., Steingart, D., Gournay, T., Sachsmann, S., Crawford, G. P. and Hurt, R. H. (2003) 'Liquid crystal surface anchoring of mesophase pitch', Carbon, 41(11), pp. 20732083. doi:10.1016/S0008-6223(03)00203-3.